The distribution of spiders depends on geological, environmental, ecological, genetic, and behavioral factors. Spiders are terrestrial invertebrates, and they are found on almost every continent of the world, excepting Antarctica. They are quite versatile, living in both the tropical and temperate regions, adapting to a variety of habitats such as swamps, marshes, bogs, mountains, deserts, chaparrals, and forests. Some spider species live in the rock crevices of the ocean’s edge. There are also house spider species that might live in the windowsill, basement, or attic.
Events like rising sea level or climate change can cause spiders to become isolated in specialized refuge habitats, such as islands, mountain tops, and caves. These are usually small isolated populations that can undergo random genetic variations. The refuge habitats are crucial for conservation because the spiders that inhabit these places are not seen anywhere else.